Psychology

SHIFT OF ALTERNATIVES AS A MECHANISM FOR UNDERSTANDING DIALOGIC RELATIONS IN SCIENTIFIC TEXTS

Abstract: 

The article studies the ability to discover dialogic relations in scientific texts as part of reading comprehension skills. In the course of the empirical study we came to the conclusion that the ability to identify the macro-structure of the text is an important, but not the only condition for a dialogue. Another important condition is the ability to shift alternatives: finding a new meaning of the original text by placing it in a new context.

Key words: 

reading, comprehension, dialogic relations, shift of alternatives.

DIALECTICAL THINKING AND THE ABILITY OF SENIOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO VIEW THE POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SITUATION

Abstract: 

In this article we discuss the mechanisms for constructing representations of the space of possibilities based on the structural-dialectical approach. The results of empirical study show that dialectical thinking can be viewed as a mechanism in preschool children. We show the role of dialectical thinking in building possible relations, in effective prediction of the evolving situation and cyclic representations.

Key words: 

dialectical thinking, possibility, cyclic representation, contradictory situation, anticipation, space of possibilities, developmental psychology.

DIALECTICAL STRUCTURES IN METACOGNITION

Abstract: 

The problem of metacognition is analyzed in the context of structural-dialectical approach, and the possibility of distinguishing formal and dialectical structures in metacognition is justified. The article reveals the differences in the content of dialectic and formal concepts of knowledge (cognitive and affective component of metacognition) and identifies the specificity of formal and dialectical goal-setting, simulation of conditions, programming of actions, and self-control in cognitive activity. We also describe the content and structure of the dialectical actions, providing metacognitive processes.

Key words: 

types of metacognition, structure of metacognition, structural-dialectical approach, Gnostic goal-setting, simulation of conditions, programming of actions, self-control of cognitive activity.

PSYCHOLOGY OF FAMILY REPRESENTATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

Abstract: 

The paper explores the attitudes to child-raising and women’s awareness of their role in family life exemplified by the experience of women practicing Islam. Given the multi-confessional affiliation of the peoples in the Russian Federation, the study of this aspect is particularly relevant and is aimed at a better understanding of the Muslim faith.

Key words: 

family in Islam, functions and structure of a family, role assumptions, parent-child relationships, styles of family education.

PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE METHOD USED TO STUDY THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF A JOURNALIST

Abstract: 

In this paper we suggest a method for identifying the key professional competences of a journalist. The psychometric evaluation of the method, its reliability and validity, is given. On the basis of the empirical research we also show that a number of performance criteria correlate with certain characteristics of selfactualization.

Key words: 

journalist’s personality, criteria of professional performance, validity and reliability.

STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF DIALECTICAL THINKING

Abstract: 

The article explores dialectical thinking description. The problem is, that if we analyze the dialectical thinking content, the unity of the thinking process is lost, since the idea as a product of transformation of the problematic situation is unique for each case. If adequate structural units of dialectical thinking are found and used to describe the process, the contradiction will be solved. Oppositional relations, allowing content interpretation, are chosen as structural units of dialectical thinking.

Key words: 

dialectical thinking, units of description, opposites, dialectical structures, dialectical cycle.

SYMBOLIZATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILD AND DIALECTICAL THINKING

Abstract: 

The article introduces the possibility of correlation between the processes of symbolization and dialectical thinking in the child. Special attention is paid to the comparison of the dialectical thinking conception in the structural-dialectical psychology of N.Veraksa with that of J. Piaget School. The role of symbolism in the child's development, exemplified by gaming activities and drawing, as well as the correlation between these processes and the development of dialectical thinking are discussed.

Key words: 

sign, symbol, symbolic mediation, signed mediation, preschool psychology, developmental psychology.

STRUCTURAL FLEXIBILITY OF THINKING IN THE CONTEXT OF DIALECTICAL APPROACH IN PSYCHOLOGY

Abstract: 

This article covers a number of issues concerning the urgent problems of creative and productive thinking. The brief analysis of the concept “creative thinking” in the context of structural dialectical thinking is also provided. Such notions as “structure” and “multidimensionality” are discussed when applied to the examination of intellectual creativity. A new concept is introduced in the framework of dialectical thinking theory, and this is “structural flexibility of thinking (SFT)”. The article also presents the results of the empirical study of the relationship between dialectical thinking and SFT (by means of the author’s diagnostic techniques). The author comes to the conclusion that the ability to perform dialectical transformations determines the ability to “turn the problem into an opportunity” by mentally putting the problematic object into the context of different structural interconnections.

Key words: 

dialectical thinking, structural flexibility of thinking, multidimensionality, creativity, productiveness.

THE DEFINITION OF THE RULE DIFFERENTIATION GIVEN BY A PRESCHOOL CHILD IN A NORMATIVE SITUATION

Abstract: 

The article presents the psychometric evaluation and description of a technique used to define rule differentiation given by senior preschool children in a normative situation. The results of the calculations of indicators for discrimination ability, external validity, internal coherence and retesting reliability are considered.

Key words: 

normative situation, differentiation of rule, senior preschool child, validity, reliability.

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