Pedagogy

Effective educational technology: A variable component of intensive training course in writing texts

Abstract: 

The article discusses how to teach writing a summary and an argumentative essay for the BSE in the Russian language at the intensive preparatory courses of the Technical University Center for Pre-University Education. The purpose of the article is to consider variant forms of a training unit, which is an organizational unit of intensive training, aimed to develop speech.

The article suggests that teaching to write a summary should include a skill-acquisition stage, a consolidation stage and a checking-writing-skills stage within a single training unit. We provide a detailed description of the workshop strategies, aiming to create a joint teacher-student summary, which involves the analysis of the content, composition, and linguistic means of the source text; text compression; coherence of the created written statement; proofreading. We believe it is necessary to analyze the content of the author's text along with the linguistic analysis and describe the strategies of semantic and linguistic compression of the text.

In teaching to write an argumentative essay on linguistic topics, a training unit is presented as a two-part structure, involving a training workshop and a test essay. The article pays special attention to the stages of conducting a workshop.

The proposed variant forms of lessons at the intensive preparatory courses involve “immersion” in the subject that ensures thematic, logical, and conceptual unity of the learning material acquisition.

Key words: 

intensive training, training unit, summary, text analysis, text compression, essay.

Shaping phraseological world-image in senior preschool children

Abstract: 

The topicality of the study is conditioned by the importance of adequate perception of phraseological units, correct understanding of their meaning and appropriate use in various communicative situations by preschool children. Phraseological units enter children’s life through daily routines and later through fiction. They are considered to be a means of enriching preschool children’s vocabulary, a means of familiarization with national culture. Being constants of national culture, phraseological units form a phraseological world-image.

Linguistic and cultorological notes enable young readers to develop conscious understanding of phraseological units, to use them consciously and actively in speech and expand their horizons. Linguistic and cultorological notes follow a certain algorithm comprising three types of components: encyclopaedic (cross-cultural), historical and etymological information as well as the explication of the cultural meaning of a phraseological unit. The article gives a comprehensive understanding of a phraseological unit and considers the mechanisms of shaping a phraseological image against the broad cultural and historical background. The inner form participates in the formation of a phraseological unit. The image of the inner form is a source of semantic motivation and cultural connotation of a phraseological unit. Special attention is paid to the study of the inner form of a phraseological unit as it translates cultural connotations. The study interprets the image of phraseological units used in children’s fiction and explains their prototypes. Linguistic and cultorological notes help to reconstruct fragments of a phraseological world-image: history, culture, the image of people’s life, i.e. it accumulates a national outlook.

Key words: 

phraseological unit, image of a phraseological unit, prototype situation, linguistic and cultorological notes, phraseological world-image, national culture, fiction.

Educational Olympiads in the history of the Russian language and book printing

Abstract: 

Students are usually very interested in facts from the history of the Russian language and the origin and development of book printing in Russia and abroad. However, these topics are not available in school curricula and are not sufficiently represented in the traditional Russian Language Olympiads. The research problem consists in revealing new possibilities of the Russian Language Olympiads for intellectual and spiritual education of university students and schoolchildren, in the development of new ways, forms and methods for forming their cognitive competence and universal learning activities, in optimizing and improving scientific research activities for students of secondary and higher schools. The purpose of the research is to prove that it is necessary to study the history of the Russian language and the history of book printing at school and to hold specialized linguistic Olympiads in narrow linguistic topics in secondary and higher schools. The main results of the study include the following. We have proved that it is necessary to use intellectual competitions in the history of the Russian language and the history of book printing in the secondary and higher schools. We have analyzed the main competencies and universal learning activities that are formed and improved in the process of preparing students for Olympiads of this type. We have elaborated the concept and technology of the Olympiad in the history of the Russian language, the life and activities of the first printers Johannes Gutenberg and Ivan Fyodorov, the history of printing in Europe and Russia. We have revealed how additional work on in-depth learning of the linguistic disciplines of the historical cycle contributes to the intellectual development of university students and schoolchildren. We have proved that it is necessary to use such methods as historical commenting on the phonetic, lexical and morphological phenomena of the Russian language; acquaintance with the history of printing in Europe and Russia, studying the first printed books; acquaintance with the collection of ancient manuscripts and printed books from the N. I. Lobachevsky Academic Library in Kazan State University.

Key words: 

linguistics, Olympiad, history of the Russian language, printing, universal learning activities, cognitive competence.

Organizational conditions and methods of teaching “Country Studies” to foreign students of Russian at intensive preparatory courses

Abstract: 

The article explores intensive teaching of “Country Studies” to students who study Russian as a foreign language at university preparatory courses. The purpose of the article is to consider the features of organizational conditions and methods of intensive teaching Country Studies, based on a separate module of a training session.

The article suggests use the technology of intensive training in a foreign language audience based on a model with a low degree of intensification of time and energy of the educational process subjects. We have developed the invariant of the educational module structure as an educational and organizational unit of intensive teaching, which is a rigorous methodological sequence: checking homework – detailed reading – independent work on the text – analyzing semantic and compositional structure of the text. Special attention is paid to a set of tasks for each stage of the educational module to ensure the achievement of educational aims of the lesson and its stages. Learners are engaged in active mastering of enlarged content units, games (role-playing) and other interactive forms. Visualization tools are used to stimulate an emotional factor in learning. This method of intensive teaching of Country Studies ensures the integrity and quality of mastering educational information and subjectively-meaningful comprehension of linguistic material, which contributes to the cultural-linguistic adaptation of students in a foreign language environment.

Key words: 

intensive teaching, Country Studies, model, educational and organizational unit, text analysis, set of tasks.

Formation of ethnic identity in students–future teachers by means of museum pedagogics

Abstract: 

The article is devoted to the urgent problem of modern society: Searching effective means of developing ethnic self-awareness of the individual in the context of the current unification of social and cultural values. We believe this issue is important for the multinational and multicultural population of the Republic of Tatarstan. We consider that the development of ethnic self-awareness primarily requires the formation of its key component - ethnic identity.

The article focuses on searching the most effective tools for forming ethnic identity in students–future teachers. We formulate theoretical provisions concerning the essence of ethnic identity, its distinguishing features and factors that prevent its positive development.

In our opinion, museum pedagogy, as one of the areas of pedagogical science, possesses a significant potential for forming ethnic identity in future teachers. This article emphasizes the unique role of museums in solving the problem under study. We suggest a program for forming ethnic identity in students–future teachers by integrating the content of the pedagogical course “History of Pedagogy and Education” and museum practice. We have proved experimentally the effectiveness of this strategy.

The article can be recommended to teachers and museum workers who intend to form ethnic self-consciousness in university students.

Key words: 

ethnic self-awareness, ethnic identity, formation, means, museum pedagogy, educational environment, integration.

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