Linguistics

The image of the moon in K. D. Balmont’s poetry

Abstract: 

Based on the works of K. D. Balmont, the article analyzes the image of the moon in terms of poetics and functions, revealing the features of its poetic embodiment and symbolic content. The article also deals with its artistic and semantic implementation and describes the features of objectification of its symbolic and figurative-associative attributes. By means of identifying the leading motifs, associated with the image of the moon, the author describes its individual semantic scope in Balmont’s idiostyle. The paper reveals the significance of the image of the moon in the artistic picture of the poet's world and concludes that the moon is one of the central system-forming elements of Balmont’s lyric poetry. It is filled with rich philosophical and symbolic content (it is the basic element of the cosmogonic picture of the world that expresses the implication of the transcendent being and correlates with most important metaphysical attributes (eternity, infinity, silence, universal beauty, etc.)). In the works of K. D. Balmont, the moon has a deep mytho-epic meaning. It is the result of the artistic synthesis of various archaic representations, refracted through the prism of the author's worldview, occupying an important place in the philosophical-pantheistic conception of the world created by the poet.

 

Key words: 

image, moon, poetic symbol, poetic language, K. D. Balmont.

The language of the copy of “The Slavo-Bulgarian History” by N. Gerov

Abstract: 

The nineteenth century occupies a special place in the history of Bulgarian-Russian relations. The rapprochement of the two Slavic peoples was promoted by the liberation of Bulgaria from the five-century Ottoman Yoke with the help of Bulgarian rebels and Russian soldiers, who won the victory in the fierce Russo-Turkish Wars. They created favorable circumstances for the national revival of Bulgarians, which happened with the active Russian support. Confessional, literary, and educational contacts, interrupted in the middle of the 15th century after the Turkish capture of Byzantium and Bulgarian lands, grew more active in the 19th century when Bulgarian culture experienced the strongest influence of Russian culture. The process was brightly reflected in the Bulgarian literary language. The article focuses on the language of the copy of “The Slavo-Bulgarian History”, written by one of the outstanding representatives of the Bulgarian Renaissance, the participant of the rebel movement, Nayden Gerov, a teacher, poet, lexicographer, state and diplomatic figure. Bulgarian researchers have determined the time when the copy of the text was created, they have restored N. Gerov's biography, and identified the features, characterizing his manner of writing. They have also defined the copy source, however, the language of Gerov`s copy actually remained unstudied. As a rule, linguists consider that Gerov's copy is written in the modern Bulgarian literary language. The article explores the following problem: The language status of the copy of “The Slavo-Bulgarian History”, which is differently qualified by modern researchers. Therefore, the following goals were set: 1) to study the main lexicological and phraseological fund of the work in the context of its origin; 2) to analyze the phonetic features of its text; 3) to estimate the grammatical system of the text in terms of historical and linguistic positions. To achieve these goals, we implemented the synchronous-system approach with a comprehensive use of descriptive, comparative-historical and comparative methods, used in combination with the methods of linguocultural, component and contextual analyses. The language analysis of the text revealed that 1) the lexicological and phraseological structure of the text of the copy is generally mutual for the Russian and Bulgarian languages of the 19th century; 2) in case the choice is possible, Gerov consistently chooses the South Slavic phonetic variant; 3) in most cases the grammatical system of the manuscript is based on the standards of the Old Church Slavonic language of the Russian version; 4) the language of the copy of “The Slavo-Bulgarian History”, written by Gerov, contains the features of the 19th century live Bulgarian language.

Key words: 

Bulgarian literary language, “The Slavo-Bulgarian History”, Renaissance culture, Nayden Gerov, education, Russian language, Old Church Slavonic Language.

On aesthetic resources of the category of case of nouns (based on Russian poetry)

Abstract: 

The article studies the aesthetics of language and speech, one of the relevant areas of modern linguistics. The purpose of our work is to identify factors, contributing to the actualization of the aesthetic potencies of the noun case category. We used the following methods in our research: descriptive-analytical, semantic-stylistic, and distributive. The materials for our analysis are the poetic works of the 20th century, included in the National Corps of the Russian language. The study of linguistic literature made it possible for us to define aesthetic resources of linguistic units, including the means of the morphological level of the language, with a focus on the aesthetic meta-category. We also considered the main properties of the category of case of Russian substantives. The article presents a review of works which research the issues of stylistic characterization and expressive possibilities of the category of case. We revealed the factors that contribute to the realization of the aesthetic possibilities of case forms used in poetic works, namely: deviations from the linguistic norm, repetition of the same case form formed from different nouns, use of different case forms of the same noun, and semantic puns of case, or prepositional-case forms of a noun. At the same time, we gave a more detailed coverage of various cases of deviation from the language norm. Our observations and conclusions are substantiated by a variety of illustrative materials.

Key words: 

poetic text, aesthetics of language units, noun case category, aesthetic resources of case forms, factors contributing to the realization of aesthetic possibilities of the category of case.

Semantic features of the verbs of interpersonal relations in I. A. Bunin's works

Abstract: 

The article analyzes semantic features of the verbs of interpersonal relations in I. A. Bunin's works. The significance of the undertaken research consists in considering verbal forms based on the fictional material. The texts of I. A. Bunin allowed us to recreate a broad picture of relationships between people and to identify the individual-authorial features of language use. The complexity of the semantic structure enabled us to consider one and the same lexeme both as a verb of relations, a verb of an emotional state, and as a verb of speech. The interaction of lexical-semantic groups in some cases causes difficulty in determining the affiliation of a verb to the group of verbs of interpersonal relations. This article reconstructs the semantic structure of verbs, expressing interpersonal relations. Special attention is paid to the identification of semantic changes in the structure of verbal word forms. The article also reveals the features, characterizing the author's expression of interpersonal relations. Our attention is focused on the analysis of the verbs of the emotional-appraising relations presented by the verbs of other lexical-semantic groups as well as verbal-nominal combinations. In each lexical-semantic group, there are verbs with positive and negative semantics. When analyzing verbs and verbal-nominal combinations, we focus on the compatibility of these forms with different concretizers, which made it possible for us to reveal I. A. Bunin’s original idiostyle.

Key words: 

verbs of interpersonal relations, lexical-semantic group, verbs of emotional-appraising relations, verbal-nominal combination, positive semantics, negative semantics.

Peculiarities of self-presentation in political debates in the aspect of multimodal interactions

Abstract: 

The article is devoted to one of the currently important topics – a specific character of multimodal communication in media-political discourse. This article deals with gender peculiarities of communication in political teledebates (Great Britain) at the stage of self-presentation (based on the English language), when participants take turns and act both as speakers and as listeners. They have a very difficult task to fulfill – to present their party and to make a certain impact on the audience in a short period of time. A video analysis was chosen as a method of our research. The article is aimed at specifying characteristic features of verbal and non-verbal communication of participants, men and women, from the point of view of multimodal interactions. We analyzed how speakers use different verbal and non-verbal (gestures, mimics, pauses, etc.) tools to interact with the listeners (other participants and audience) and even to manipulate them. We also analyzed verbal and non-verbal forms of communication as well as different ways that speakers use to interact with the listeners and to influence them. As a result of a comparative analysis, certain similarities and differences in male and female communication have been found.

Key words: 

verbal and non-verbal communication, speaker, listener, multimodal communication, self-presentation.

Reflecting the national character in the paroemias of the Mexican Spanish and American English languages

Abstract: 

The article investigates the originality of national characters of American and Mexican nations. The analysis of the language – proverbs in Mexican Spanish and American English, allows us to determine the unique worldview of each nation. The influence of economic, political, historical, and religious systems of each country is manifested in speech as set phrases. The purpose of our research is to compare the stereotypes of each nation’s behavior through proverbs and to find unique interpretations of national worldviews and national life philosophies as stable, repetitive models of behavior. We study the language not only as a tool of communication, but also as a unique cultural code of the nation. Set phrases – paroemia – illustrate the national consciousness of the people. The comparative analysis of Mexican and American proverbs demonstrates the unique national character and culture of each nation, despite their geographical proximity and economic ties. This uniqueness is affected not only by unstable philosophical elements like economy and political systems, but also by such stable and slowly changing elements like religion and national history of each country. In conclusion, the research demonstrates the necessity of studying proverbs for effective international communication and successful cooperation in the modern global world.

Key words: 

paroemia, stereotypical figures of speech, national mentality, national worldview, national character.

Game terminology in fictional and professional discourse (based on the works of V. V. Nabokov, A. E. Karpov, A. B. Roshal)

Abstract: 

The article analyzes the function of game terminology in fictional and professional discourse. The study is based on V. V. Nabokov’s novel “The Defense” and the book by A. E. Karpov and A. B. Roshal “The Ninth Vertical”. The purpose of the article is to reveal the features of uses and functions of game terminology in fictional and professional discourse.

In this work we used such methods of linguistic research as the statistical method, the component analysis, and the interpretative method.

This research enabled us to determine the differences in the use of chess terms in fictional `and professional (chess) discourse.

The data from this study suggest that in spite of the fact that the main terms of professional chess sport are used in fictional texts, they have different functions. Thus, in fictional discourse, we noted the nominative, text-forming functions and the function of character drawing. In professional discourse chess terms are used only in the nominative function. Complex terms that require a more detailed study are not used in fictional discourse, while professional literature abounds in them. The unprepared reader cannot restore the meaning of these terms without special reference books and dictionaries. In fictional texts, we can find synonymous terms, while in professional texts synonyms are not allowed.

Key words: 

Vladimir Nabokov, A. E. Karpov, game, chess, chess terminology, game terminology, discourse.

Lexemes “organization” and “organism” in the Russian language in comparison with Chinese

Abstract: 

The purpose of this article is to analyse the meanings and uses of the nouns “organization” and “organism” in the Russian language in comparison with Chinese. This work focuses on the evaluation characteristics of the lexemes “organization”, “organism”, “体质” (‘organization’) and “体魄” (‘organism’). The lexemes “organization” and “organism” are fragments of the Russian language picture of the world. By comparing the same fragments of the Chinese language picture of the world we establish their similarities and differences. A comparative analysis of the semantic structures of these words allows us to draw conclusions about the differences and similarities in the Russian and Chinese language pictures of the world, which have more differences than similarities in the notions of the human organism. Russian texts contain stylistic implicit words often used to meet the requirements of the context. In Chinese, such words do not coincide with the Russian words. In addition, the number of implicit words in the Chinese language is much lesser than in the Russian language. In the Russian language picture of the world, the attitude to the old age is indifferent, while in Chinese it is respectful, which is substantiated by social, cultural and historical facts.

Key words: 

meaning of “organization”, meaning of “organism”, meaning of 体质, meaning of体魄, Chinese language picture of the world, Russian language picture of the world.

Paleographic features of the Kazan Lectionary of the fourteenth century (Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts of the Scientific Library at Kazan Federal University, No. 2072): Diacritical marks

Abstract: 

The article describes a set of diacritical marks in the manuscripts of the Kazan Lectionary, its application and functionality. The Kazan Lectionary is the oldest manuscript of the city archives. It dates from the second half of the fourteenth century, but also contains later editing and correcting marks. The study of diacritical marks is important both for more accurate descriptions of the manuscripts and for clarifying its dating. The study shows that in general the manuscript has all the diacritical marks adopted in Slavic literature at that time, however, their use is differentiated in the main text and renovations. The article contains observations concerning the differences in the use of characters by different scribes who worked on the manuscript. Based on the data presented in the article, the date of the manuscript is specified: its main text was written before the start of the Second South Slavic Influence and is typical of the Old Russian literature of that time, additions and renovations contain the features of the Second South Slavic Influence, which are also evident at the graphical level. The diacritics of the later insertions is richer than the diacritics of the main text and follows the traditions of the South Slavic manuscripts, the majority of superscript characters are nettunes, but the marks of acute and gravis accents reflect mainly accentological features of the language and represent the beginning of a consequent accentological marking of Old-Russian writing that will become obligatory since the 16th century.

Key words: 

paleography, diacritics, accentology, Second South Slavic Influence, lectionary.

Variability of Turkisms in the Russian language (based on academic dictionaries)

Abstract: 

This article reveals the features of formal-grammatical adaptation of Turkisms (Turkish borrowings), i.e., words which came to the Russian language from Turkish languages or through Turkish languages. These are lexical units with a Turkish stage in their history. The sources for research are complete academic thesauri of the Russian language of the 18th – 20th cc. The article views the graphemic-phonetic (kaif – keif, sandal – santal), orphographic (karga – korga, otomanka – ottomanka), and accentological (zhe’mchug – zhemchu’g, pia’la – piala’) variations of Turkish words, found in the thesauri. The comparison of the lexicographic materials from various periods and the comparative analysis of the revealed variation units enabled us to fully present the stages of the foreign words entry into the recipient language system and to characterize the features of their functioning. As the analysis shows, the bulk of the Turkish vocabulary was adopted within the studied period; about 16% of the total number of Turkish units has variations (about 150 units have phonetic-graphical variations, and about 20 units have accentological variations). The ways of lexicographic formatting of the variants (presence / absence of references, sequence and uniformity in presenting the material), described in the article, make it possible to define the features of the content and structure of dictionary entries in the analyzed Russian thesauri.

Key words: 

Russian language, loanword, lexicography, explanatory dictionary, Turkism.

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