Zamaletdinov R.

Tatar natural phenomena verbs: Semantics and collocability

Abstract: 

Being a prototypical designation means for expressing actions, processes, and relations, the verb sketches elementary logical-semantic models and outlines situations with a definite set of participants. Recent semantic classifications of predicate words go beyond ontological (thematic) criteria, they are built on the framework of morphosyntactic, derivational, pragmatic, collocational and other characteristics.

This paper analyses Tatar synthetic (one word) verbs, denoting natural phenomena. Our study focuses on the verbs derived from nouns, denoting weather states.

This study is based on the assumption that verb semantics is a key to its grammatical behavior, basic collocations and the formation of lateral senses. The description of semantically motivated properties of verbal classes is of great importance for formulating basic linguistic rules, while their semantic component is an essential part of a complete grammar description.

The verbs of this semantic class may be used with subjects, denominating effecter, as well as impersonally. We selected typical arguments and analyzed mechanisms for the secondary nomination of verbs being analyzed, the empirical data show that weather verbs with a figurative meaning are most often used for describing human psychological states and behavior.

The paper also focuses on weather verbs functions in co-compounds. In Turkic languages co-compound verbs form an interesting layer of linguistic items at the junction of lexical semantics, morphology and syntax. These items can help overcome the discreteness of linguistic units when coding the continuum of the external world. Their use in co-compounds is mostly characteristic of converb forms.

Key words: 

Tatar language, verb, natural phenomena, semantics, co-compounds.

Contrastive study of unrelated languages: Linguistic and methodological aspects

Abstract: 

The article considers the possibility and expediency of using the results of contrastive studies of two unrelated languages in teaching a non-native language (for example, Russian in Tatar / Bashkir schools, or vice versa). A contrastive analysis reveals similar and distinctive features of two languages, which (differential features) helps control second (non-native) language acquisition: prevent and eliminate interference (hampering moments) and skillfully use transposition (stimulating moments).

A contrastive study of two unrelated languages is carried out in academic (linguistic) and methodological (linguistic and methodological) aspects, which differ in their objectives, the volume of the analyzed material and the spheres of the obtained results. In terms of linguistics, all the materials of the compared languages are analyzed at phonetic, lexical-phraseological, morphemic, word-formative and grammatical levels. In terms of methodology, a contrastive analysis of the languages is conducted to identify difficulties in second (non-native) language acquisition. In this case, not all the linguistic material is compared, but only a certain amount of it – a certain language of learning (micro-language), which is activated as a second (non-native) language.

The materials of the contrastive analysis, conducted in linguistic and methodological aspects, can be used: 1) in the lessons of a non-native (in our case – Russian) language when learning a particular linguistic phenomenon. Attention is paid to the similarities and differences in the native and non-native (Russian) languages in order to prevent possible interference errors in the Russian speech of pupils as negative transfer, or, on the contrary, to expect positive transfer (explicit use); 2) to determine the methodological system of teaching the non-native (Russian) language, which affects the selection of educational material, its amount and distribution according to the stage of learning, as well as the system of exercises, etc. (implicit use).

Key words: 

native language, non-native language, Russian language, contrastive linguistics, contrastive analysis, universals, unique features, micro-language, linguistic and methodological aspects, interference, transposition.

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