ON JEWELLER AND COPPER SMELTERS’ TOOLS IN VOLGA BULGARIA (BASED ON THE CRUCIBLES OF BILYAR)

Abstract: 

The article is devoted to the study of medieval metallurgical craft in Volga Bulgaria. The author examines a clay crucible – one of the main components of metalworking jewelers’ tools. The materials of Bilyar settlement (early X – early XIII cc.) studied in recent years are explored. The author makes conclusions about the technical features of the tools used by Bulgar master metallurgists and outlines the prospects for their further study.

Key words: 

medieval handicraft of Eastern Europe, Volga Bulgaria, Bilyar, archeometallurgy, crucibles.

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