Evocative-evaluative function of derived verbs of behavior in the Russian language (based on the verbs with the konfixes oт-…- ся)


The article deals with the Russian verbs of behavior whose word-formation markedness indicates the presence of an evocative-evaluative connotation and a certain metaphorical meaning. The subject of our linguistic analysis is verbal predicates with the semantics of “activity evasion, contact and interaction” whose derivational structure contains the confix от-…-ся, for example, отбояриться, отделаться, отвертеться, отвязаться, etc. Such formations denote behavioral stereotypes and express basic ethical meanings.

The study characterizes evocative-evaluative functions of derived verbs of behavior in the inherent (linguistic, usual) and adherent (speech, situational) spheres. We found that the expansion of the semantic value of a lexical unit occurs in the process of semantic derivation while preserving its general semantic content. Additional (evaluative, regulative) meanings inherent in the predicates of behavior appear in the semantic structure of this lexical unit. At the same time, the semantic derivative becomes a figurative word and performs an evocative-evaluative function.

Adherent expressivity and evaluation of derived verbs of behavior manifest themselves within a specific speech situation, when the degree of semantic peioratization may increase or, on the contrary, decrease due to their contextual environment. In general, lexical co-occurrence and mental-cultural linguistic context actualize basic ethical meanings, thus objectifying the deontic norms of the Russian ethnic group in the language.

Key words: 

verbs of behavior, word formation, semantics, confix, expressivity, moral evaluation.

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