Lexemes “organization” and “organism” in the Russian language in comparison with Chinese

Abstract: 

The purpose of this article is to analyse the meanings and uses of the nouns “organization” and “organism” in the Russian language in comparison with Chinese. This work focuses on the evaluation characteristics of the lexemes “organization”, “organism”, “体质” (‘organization’) and “体魄” (‘organism’). The lexemes “organization” and “organism” are fragments of the Russian language picture of the world. By comparing the same fragments of the Chinese language picture of the world we establish their similarities and differences. A comparative analysis of the semantic structures of these words allows us to draw conclusions about the differences and similarities in the Russian and Chinese language pictures of the world, which have more differences than similarities in the notions of the human organism. Russian texts contain stylistic implicit words often used to meet the requirements of the context. In Chinese, such words do not coincide with the Russian words. In addition, the number of implicit words in the Chinese language is much lesser than in the Russian language. In the Russian language picture of the world, the attitude to the old age is indifferent, while in Chinese it is respectful, which is substantiated by social, cultural and historical facts.

Key words: 

meaning of “organization”, meaning of “organism”, meaning of 体质, meaning of体魄, Chinese language picture of the world, Russian language picture of the world.

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