Variability of Turkisms in the Russian language (based on academic dictionaries)


This article reveals the features of formal-grammatical adaptation of Turkisms (Turkish borrowings), i.e., words which came to the Russian language from Turkish languages or through Turkish languages. These are lexical units with a Turkish stage in their history. The sources for research are complete academic thesauri of the Russian language of the 18th – 20th cc. The article views the graphemic-phonetic (kaif – keif, sandal – santal), orphographic (karga – korga, otomanka – ottomanka), and accentological (zhe’mchug – zhemchu’g, pia’la – piala’) variations of Turkish words, found in the thesauri. The comparison of the lexicographic materials from various periods and the comparative analysis of the revealed variation units enabled us to fully present the stages of the foreign words entry into the recipient language system and to characterize the features of their functioning. As the analysis shows, the bulk of the Turkish vocabulary was adopted within the studied period; about 16% of the total number of Turkish units has variations (about 150 units have phonetic-graphical variations, and about 20 units have accentological variations). The ways of lexicographic formatting of the variants (presence / absence of references, sequence and uniformity in presenting the material), described in the article, make it possible to define the features of the content and structure of dictionary entries in the analyzed Russian thesauri.

Key words: 

Russian language, loanword, lexicography, explanatory dictionary, Turkism.

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