Tatar natural phenomena verbs: Semantics and collocability

Abstract: 

Being a prototypical designation means for expressing actions, processes, and relations, the verb sketches elementary logical-semantic models and outlines situations with a definite set of participants. Recent semantic classifications of predicate words go beyond ontological (thematic) criteria, they are built on the framework of morphosyntactic, derivational, pragmatic, collocational and other characteristics.

This paper analyses Tatar synthetic (one word) verbs, denoting natural phenomena. Our study focuses on the verbs derived from nouns, denoting weather states.

This study is based on the assumption that verb semantics is a key to its grammatical behavior, basic collocations and the formation of lateral senses. The description of semantically motivated properties of verbal classes is of great importance for formulating basic linguistic rules, while their semantic component is an essential part of a complete grammar description.

The verbs of this semantic class may be used with subjects, denominating effecter, as well as impersonally. We selected typical arguments and analyzed mechanisms for the secondary nomination of verbs being analyzed, the empirical data show that weather verbs with a figurative meaning are most often used for describing human psychological states and behavior.

The paper also focuses on weather verbs functions in co-compounds. In Turkic languages co-compound verbs form an interesting layer of linguistic items at the junction of lexical semantics, morphology and syntax. These items can help overcome the discreteness of linguistic units when coding the continuum of the external world. Their use in co-compounds is mostly characteristic of converb forms.

Key words: 

Tatar language, verb, natural phenomena, semantics, co-compounds.

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