Function peculiarities of Turkisms in Russian comparisons


The study of Russian-Turkic language contacts remains one of the most important tasks of modern linguistics. Historical lexicology of Slavic languages studies the causes, time and ways of penetration and adaptation of Türkisms in the Russian language. In addition, this work touches upon the contacts of languages of different structures, to which the Russian and Turkic languages belong.

Borrowings from Turkic languages constitute a considerable layer of Russian vocabulary. Unlike West European borrowings, Türkisms mainly relate to household vocabulary, therefore they have remained the only means of nomination for a long time.

Having passed different stages of adaptation, Türkisms, assimilated by the Russian language, are active in derivational processes and become parts of phraseologisms, paroemiological units and comparative constructions.

The purpose of this study is to identify semantic and functional features of Turkisms in Russian comparisons.

Our analysis of semantics and contextual and functional peculiarities of clothing items is based on the National corpus of the Russian language and the Corpus of written Tatar language. The study involves the data from explanatory, etymological dictionaries of the Russian language, and dictionaries of sustainable comparisons.

We have established a high degree of word-formative activity of the units under study that serve as a derivational basis. Numerous set phrases, proverbs and sayings prove that these lexemes belong to the active vocabulary.

All considered, Turkisms, naming items of clothing, are actively involved in the formation of comparative constructions and act as a standard of comparison in describing objects, phenomena of nature, people, etc.

Key words: 

Turkism, comparison, comparative design, Russian language, borrowing, household vocabulary, names of clothing.

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