Lexical funds in modern Slavic languages: Similarities and differences


Based on the lexical units from the Russian, Czech and Slovak languages, the paper demonstrates the typological character of similar and different features of their lexis, the changes that occurred in the late 20th –early 21st centuries are taken into account. Lexical divergence is represented by the asymmetry of word-formational and phrase-semantic families, interlingual homonymy and polysemy as well as by the differences in the syntagmatics of common lexemes, stylistic differentiation, and cultural-linguistic features of secondary nominations. At the same time, modern Slavic languages are characterized by the convergent development of their lexis, determined both by their common origin and the common internal tendencies of their development. Convergent factors are connected with the typology of semantic models, with common processes of globalization which are reflected in lexis, word-formation, and semantics. It is noteworthy that this juxtaposition of “similarities” – “differences” plays an important role for methods of teaching the Russian languages to Slavic students, being a base for language-educational grouping of lexical units.

Key words: 

Russian language as a foreign Slavic language, linguistic convergence and divergence, language-educational grouping of lexical units.

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